Y is for Youth

Prior to 1837 educational provision was very ad hoc:
Education for the privileged by governess or public school. Mary Ann Ashworth went to school 'in Rochdale' in the second decade of the 19th century and whilst this hasn't been traced with certainty the 'school for young ladies' is a possibility.
Dame schools, catering predominantly for young children, education may be minimal
Charity schools, none known in the area
Sunday schools from the 1780s onwards. the issue of teaching writing led to a split in the Methodist Church in Newchurch over whether or not this constituted 'work' on a Sunday

In 1852 the Select Committee on Criminal and Destitute Juveniles was formed in response to children roaming the street and causing mischief. It recommended 'systematic education and training for industrial work'. This was encouraged further via the 1857 Industrial Schools Act which established industrial schools covering training/skills for a trade. This included 'character reform' even if no crime committed... (these are distinct from the industrial schools established by Poor Law Unions in 1830s-40s for orphaned children) for children aged 7 to 'under 14' brought before the justices for vagrancy. Time period in school defined. In 1866 a further Act extended the reasons for admission to include begging, wandering, being in the company of thieves or being beyond parental control. The 1866 Industrial Schools Act also introduced regulations for certified establishments and schools for other denominations than C of E. Children under 12 convicted of imprisonable offence could be sent to industrial school instead of prison. In the 1876 Elementary Education Act, responsibility for industrial schools passed to education committee of the Local Authority. Apparently in 1880, a child aged under 14 living or associating with a known prostitute could be placed in an industrial school. The 1908 Children's & Young People Act made probation an alternative to industrial school. Industrial schools were abolished in 1932 and were replaced by approved schools

The 1870 Education Act England & Wales made school compulsory for children 5-13 although schools were only obliged to make provision up to age 10. Exemption could be given if a child had deemed to have reached a certain educational standard, and Patrick as Factories Inspector did prosecute mill owners for employing children without the required school certificates. This Act also established board schools, i.e those run by a school board. School boards could establish Day Industrial Feeding Schools and Truant Schools. The 1880 Elementary Education Act raised the age for which a certificate of educational standard was required in order for a child to be employed to 13 years. The minimum leaving age was raised to 11 in the Elementary Education (School Attendance Act 1893 irrespective of the standard raised. It was further raised to 12 in 1899. Education became compulsory from 5-14 under the 1918 Education Act which also began the introduction of part time education up to age 18. The school leaving age was raised to 15 in 1944, to 16 in 1972,though this had been in preparation since 1964. Similarly conversations were commenced in 2006 to raise the leaving age to 18, but the Education and Skills Act 2008 instead made it a requirement for young people to participate in education or training until they were 18. This need not necessarily be in school.

School boards were abolished in 1902 and responsibility for education was transferred to the local education authorities.

The legislation covering the education of children with special needs since 1944 is summarised in this article from the
TES. The picture before 1944 is complex with a range of provision for blind or deaf children, those with epilepsy and those who were deemed to be 'mentally defective'. These were described in the Defective and Epileptic Children Act 1899 and the Mental Deficiency Act 1913. A scholarly article on the social construction of special educational needs is given by Benjamin.

The Cloughfold Mentally Defective School was in operation between 1928 and 1941 and is summarised in my blog post go 30 March 2016.