#OnePlaceServants: 'Darling, we need an extension...'

The obituary of Charles Patrick in 1895 refers to his 'handsome and commodious residence' which was 'extended at the time of his marriage' in 1855. Indeed it was, the extension if anything being larger than the original house.

Lawn house
(The modern Springhill House is on the right, this is the side of the extension.)

The original Springhill House was a four bedroomed, three reception room dwelling of considerable proportions (boy I sound like an estate agent!). Prior to 1855 it was inhabited by Mary Ann Ashworth, the heiress of its builder John Ashworth, and another Mary Ashworth, female servant b 1811. Mary Ann Ashworth was living off the income from her property and the profits from various coal mines.

Mary Ann Ashworth married Charles Patrick in 1855. She was aged 46 at the time and there was no issue from the marriage. The extension therefore wasn't necessitated by an increasing family.

By the 1861 census the Patricks employed three house servants (duties unspecified), a gardener and a groom. Mary Ashworth was not one of the servants enumerated there.

(There is a further project here: Two of the servants were a married couple, groom and house servant. The wife came from Littleborough in Cheshire (though actually near Rochdale) as did another female house servant. I have yet to explore the relationship, if any, between these two women.)

The trend continued, in 1871 they employed four house servants and a groom as live-in servants and by 1881 this had extended to a cook, two housemaids, a kitchen maid and a nurse. The butler lived next door, the coachman and gardener next to him, as boarders with the laundress.

(Two more questions here. The first is the presence of the nurse. Mary Ann Patrick nee Ashworth died in 1883. I don't have her death certificate and her obituary doesn't mention a cause of death, but does the employment of a nurse imply she had been ill for some time? The second is that one other house in the area had a cook, did they share the gardener and the coachman?)

Mary Ann Patrick died in 1883, by 1891 Charles was managing with a cook, two housemaids, a kitchen maid and a lady's maid. His 44 yr old widowed niece was living with him together with her son, hence the lady's maid. Again the gardener and coachman lived nearby.

Charles Patrick died in 1895 and the house was divided, almost certainly separating the original house and the extension. By 1901 the residents of one half employed a cook, those of the other a general servant.

Of course all these 'servants' are people with their own histories and emotions with stories to be researched in their own right. But that is for another day.

#OnePlaceMaps: wikipedia famour residents

My last contribution to #OnePlaceMaps is this offering from Pudding.cool: a map supposedly showing the most famous person associated with a place based on Wikipedia searches.

I see Cloughfold has a trade unionist and early Labour MP, didn't know that. *Adds to list of people to research*, even though he wasn't from Springhill itself.

wikipedia famous people 2021 600

#OnePlaceMaps - uses

Consideration of maps for One-Place studies often starts with the tithe maps and the enclosure maps. That's great, if they exist, which for Springhill they don't. Looking elsewhere however there is plenty of material to be found.

Starting at the beginning, geological maps give an idea of what is under the ground and this drives what is on the ground, the use to which this is put and the subsequent development of the place. This 1820s geological map illustrates the local coal seams, exploitation of which formed a significant part in the history of the area.

geology1820Copy

The relation between geology and land use is illustrated by this land utilisation detail from 1944:


Land utilisation survey 1937 600




Maps were made for a purpose and the content reflects what the original cartographer thought was worth recording and depicting. C16 and C17 maps tend to show little detail of the area, not entirely surprising as it was relatively under developed at the time. This extract from the Yates 1786 map illustrates Cloughfold including Polefield Cottage (dated 1642) towards the left of the map and is the earliest I have found which shows Cloughfold itself (of which Springhill is part).



Yates 1786 detail


One can then trace the development of the area be comparing the OS maps over time (many of these are available on the National Library of Scotland site). A high scale OS map can also form the source of a database of features of the area, both buildings and others depending on interest.


Maps illustrating administrative boundaries give an indication of the influences on the communities. Few are contemporary for this area, but all are illustrative. For Springhill this includes the ancient hundreds:

hundreds

the extent of the manor (known as the Honor of Clitheroe), including the area under Forest Law:

civil boundary 1911honour of clitheroe cropped

or parliamentary constituencies, this one being 1886:

parliament boundaries 1886 virtue detail

As well as indicating the political and other influences on an area, these give some idea of where records may be found, or how they may be catalogued.

Patterns of development can be illustrated by the utilities set up to serve them. These may be formally provided, e.g. the telegraph network:


telegraph lines 2

or informal, such as Charles Patrick's pipe network bringing the water from Saunder Height to his properties in Springhill:

water saunder height

Other plans were drawn up to support government initiatives, whether the 1910 valuation survey (finding out what existed with the intention of taxing it) or the 1941 national farm survey (finding out what existed with the purpose of seeing if it could be made more efficient) which often included plans of the farms in question. Local government consultations often come with plans of the area, this example being the Cloughfold Conservation Area 1975.


conservation area 1975

Of course maps and plans have long been used to illustrate title, whether old deeds such as this one from 1899 or recent Land Registry documents.


1899 deed

Beware however that the Land Registry plans aren't necessarily correct. Taking this extract for example, the Cottage isn't where it appears to be, Sunset View isn't that big and 3 Springhill doesn't exist…


s house land detail 600


Less formal plans may be used to illustrate research progress, examples being these illustrating some of the churches in Rossendale


churches rossendale 600


field names reconstructed from documents:


fields  named 600


or the outline of Sion Baptist Church graveyard:



sion graveyard layout draft 4 600

They can, of course, serve multiple functions. This map by the late John B Taylor, local artist and historian, show the route of a traditional community walk, summarises points of interest and is a thing of beauty in its own right. I deeply regret not commissioning him to draw a map of the Springhill area before he passed away.

Map JBT 600


#OnePlaceWorship

The May blogging prompt is #OnePlaceWorship. As consideration of worship forms a major part of this study, with consideration of a C17 Dissenting congregation, a C17 Quaker meeting place, a C of E philanthropist, a Unitarian minister and a Methodist local preacher amongst others, it hasn't formed the subject of a separate blog.

#OnePlacePubs: The Weavers Arms

The Weavers Arms was a C19/early 20 pub at the west side of the end of the drive into Sion Baptist. The only image I have of it as a hostelry is this photo of a glass plate negative which was part of a display in the Whitaker, the local museum. Springhill house is the bright building in the centre at the back, behind the trees.

Weavers arms 640

I haven't been able (read: had time) to research the landlords etc of this pub. Interestingly most inquests and other 'official' business seemed to have been conducted in the Red Lion, about 50 yards round the corner. It ceased trading as a pub in the mid C20 after which it became a chip shop and then a private dwelling, which it remains today.


Weavers Arms 640

The early picture is a silver gelatine 'dry plate' glass negative, which were common between ~ 1873 and the late 1920s. I had a go as inverting it in Affinity photo software and this is the result. Much quicker than in the darkroom…


Weavers arms inverted 640